Automotive & Transportation // Automotive Materials
The global brake system market is foreseen to grow by 5.1%, from USD 25.94 Billion in 2022 to USD 38.62 Billion in 2030. Stringent safety regulations, integration of ACC in electronic braking systems to enhance vehicle handling, impact of New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) is to drive the market for the upcoming forecast period. However, high development and maintenance costs of advanced braking technology remains one factor hindering the market growth over the anticipated period.
What Is Brake System?
The brake system is an essential component of any vehicle, responsible for ensuring that the vehicle can slow down or come to a complete stop when needed. The brake system works by converting the kinetic energy of the moving vehicle into heat, which is then dissipated through the brakes to bring the vehicle to a stop. In this essay, we will discuss the various components of the brake system, how they work together, and recent developments in brake technology.
The brake system is
made up of several key components, including the brake pedal, brake lines,
brake calipers, and brake pads. When the driver presses the brake pedal,
hydraulic pressure is generated, which is then transmitted through the brake
lines to the brake calipers. The brake calipers contain pistons that press the
brake pads against the brake rotors, causing friction that slows down or stops
In recent years, there have been several notable developments in brake technology that are improving the performance and safety of vehicles. One such development is the introduction of anti-lock braking systems (ABS), which prevent the wheels from locking up during hard braking. ABS systems use sensors to detect when a wheel is about to lock up, and then rapidly release and reapply the brakes to prevent skidding.
Another important development in brake technology is the use of regenerative braking systems in hybrid and electric vehicles. Regenerative braking systems use the kinetic energy of the vehicle to generate electricity, which is then used to recharge the vehicle's battery. This not only improves the efficiency of the vehicle but also reduces wear and tear on the brake system.
Additionally, there has been an increasing focus on the use of lightweight materials in brake systems, such as carbon fiber and ceramic composites. These materials offer improved performance and durability while reducing the weight of the brake system, which can improve fuel efficiency and handling.
In conclusion, the brake system is a critical component of any vehicle, responsible for ensuring the safety of drivers and passengers on the road. Recent developments in brake technology, including the introduction of ABS systems, regenerative braking, and lightweight materials, are improving the performance and safety of vehicles, and these trends are likely to continue in the years to come. As vehicles become more advanced and the demands on brake systems increase, it is clear that the development of new and innovative brake technologies will be crucial to keeping drivers safe and vehicles running smoothly.
The driver in the automotive industry towards vehicle safety is the inclusion of advanced brake systems like ABS and EBD. Electronic braking systems such as ABS, BA, and EBD are effective in reducing stopping distance and enhancing vehicle stability and directional control. Compared to conventional braking systems, ABS provides shorter stopping distances during hard braking. According to ROSPA, ABS ensures the shortest distance to bring a vehicle to a stop. BA, which is usually used together with ABS, can reduce the stopping distance by 45%. The regulatory norms for vehicle safety are expected to boost the adoption of ABS and BA in the coming years.
EBD is an extension of ABS and ensures equal force distribution to each wheel, providing enhanced stability, reduced stopping distance, improved traction, and maximized braking efficiency. Developing countries like India and Mexico are following the trend and have announced their intention to adopt advanced braking systems like EBD and ESC in their new vehicles. The Indian automobile industry has already embraced ESC and plans to make EBD mandatory from 2023. The Mexican government also plans to install ESC and EBD in selected vehicles produced from 2022.
Restraints in Brake System Market
The high costs associated with the development and maintenance of advanced braking technology serve as a restraint to their widespread adoption. The expenses of maintaining brake systems are significant, with routine service requiring the replacement of various components, such as brake fluid, shoes, pads, rotors, and cleaning, adjusting, and lubricating of other mechanisms. These expenses can add up quickly, especially with the installation of an anti-lock braking system (ABS), which involves costly sensors on each wheel, averaging between USD 150-400 per sensor replacement and USD 90-200 for brake fluid replacement, as reported by Repair Smith. Additionally, critical components such as master cylinders, rotors, calipers, drums, pads, and cylinders can cost anywhere between USD 750-1,000 to replace.
In countries such as India and Brazil, where cost sensitivity is high, advanced electronic braking systems are primarily limited to high-end vehicles. The added cost of maintenance and repair for these systems acts as a significant restraint to their adoption in such markets.
Opportunities in Brake System Market
In an effort to reduce vehicle crashes, more than 40 countries agreed to a draft United Nations Regulation in 2019 for Advanced Emergency Braking (AEB) systems in cars and light vehicles. The European Union has since amended its Regulation No. 152-00 to require vehicle manufacturers to include AEB in new light passenger and commercial vehicles, and also mandates testing of vehicles at 60 MPH to ensure proper deployment of AEB systems. AEB systems are gaining popularity, in large part due to government mandates that make it a mandatory feature in vehicle models. AEB systems help prevent potential collisions, reduce the intensity of collisions, enhance braking force, and are effective on both urban and highway roads.
In 2016, 20 major automakers voluntarily agreed to make advanced emergency braking systems a standard feature in nearly all of their new vehicles by September 1, 2022. As of December 2021, more than 12 major automakers from China have equipped nearly all of their 2021 vehicles with AEB, and more manufacturers plan to meet the voluntary commitment to equip nearly all of their vehicles with AEB by the same date. According to estimates by the IIHS, if all automakers meet this agreement, it could prevent 42,000 crashes and 20,000 injuries by 2025.
Challenges in Brake System Market
Air brake freeze-ups pose a significant challenge for heavy-duty vehicles like trucks and trailers. Moisture in the brake lines or shoes is the most common cause of trailer brake freezing, and this problem is more common during winters. Repairing frozen air brakes requires a lot of effort and can be particularly challenging if the vehicle uses an ABS system. In such cases, moisture can accumulate in the ABS valves, causing them to freeze and malfunction. Therefore, managing moisture in trailer brake lines is critical, especially in developed countries of Europe and North America where stability control is now a standard feature in new trucks.
Recently, in March 2021, Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems, LLC issued a recall notice to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for 2,090 Bendix SC-3 check valves that are part of an air-brake system due to manufacturing defects. This highlights the importance of ensuring the reliability and safety of air brake systems, and manufacturers need to take appropriate measures to address any issues that could lead to brake failure or malfunction.
The brake system market ecosystem is composed of several key players, including raw materials suppliers, component and part manufacturers, brake system manufacturers, and OEMs. The braking systems consist of either disc or drum brakes and are equipped with brake pads and linings, which are made from various friction materials such as phenol resin, aramid fiber, steel fiber, graphite, and others. Parts manufacturers supply components such as ABS control modules, brake boosters, master cylinders, brake pedals, wheel speed sensors, and more.
Brake system manufacturers and system integrators procure these parts and components from suppliers and use them to design brake systems based on the specific requirements of OEMs. OEMs then directly deploy and install these systems in their vehicle models. This market ecosystem involves a complex supply chain where each player has a specific role to play, from raw material suppliers to OEMs, in bringing high-quality brake systems to the market.
The hydraulic brake system is expected to be the largest market segment, by actuation, due to the growing production of passenger cars and light commercial vehicles (LCVs). The hydraulic brake system offers several advantages such as better heat dissipation than mechanical brakes, improved braking power transmission, compact size, and ease of repair due to readily available brake parts in the aftermarket. These benefits are driving the increased penetration of hydraulic brake systems in the global brake system market during the forecast period.
Recent developments such as the use of Glycol ethers and derivatives in place of mineral oils have further reduced the cost and increased the life of brake fluid. Since almost all passenger cars and LCVs are equipped with hydraulic brake systems, the Asia Pacific region has the largest hydraulic brake market. China and India are expected to hold the largest market shares in Asia Pacific due to higher production of passenger cars and LCVs. North America and Europe also have a significant presence in the hydraulic brake market, but as local automobile OEMs outsource their manufacturing to developing countries, the brake products aftermarket is expected to show more promising growth in these regions.
The passenger car brake systems market is anticipated to be the fastest-growing segment during the forecast period, driven by the increasing demand for advanced braking systems. Passenger cars employ two braking systems, namely, service brakes and parking brakes. The government mandates have played a significant role in boosting the brake system market, particularly the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) initiated by the US in 1978 to improve road and vehicle safety. This program has encouraged governments worldwide to adopt advanced braking systems and establish their local NCAPs. The Global NCAP, established by UN member states, promotes the universal adoption of the United Nation's most important motor vehicle safety standards worldwide, including Electronic Stability Control (ESC), which includes Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and Electronic Brakeforce Distribution (EBD). Therefore, the demand for braking technologies from OEMs is expected to increase due to this mandate.
Although advanced brakes are already popular in Europe and North America, the increasing adoption of such brakes in the Asia Pacific region is expected to drive market growth. The Ministry of Road Transport & Highways of India announced in April 2019 that electronic stability control and autonomous braking will become mandatory features on passenger cars in India by 2023, which will further increase the adoption of advanced brake systems. Passenger cars and SUVs with all four-wheel disc brakes are gaining popularity in Asia Pacific and the rest of the world due to stringent safety standards, making these braking systems mandatory. As a result, the passenger car brake system market is expected to experience robust growth in the coming years.
According to forecasts, the agricultural equipment brake system market is expected to experience the most significant growth in the coming years. The agriculture equipment segment is projected to lead the Off-highway equipment brake system market in terms of volume, driven primarily by the higher sales of agricultural tractors worldwide compared to construction equipment. The Asia Pacific region's increasing levels of farm mechanization are expected to be a significant driver for this segment, particularly during the forecast period. In India, for example, tractor sales have seen a 23% growth between 2020 and 2022.
Furthermore, the Off-highway equipment brake system market is expected to benefit from the growing construction and mining activities resulting from rapid industrialization, particularly in developing countries such as India and Brazil. These countries have already relaxed regulations concerning the mining industry to encourage sector growth, which is driving the demand for mining and construction equipment in Asia Pacific and RoW. This trend is expected to contribute significantly to the growth of the global Off-highway equipment brake system market.
The global ATV market is expected to experience significant growth in the coming years, driven by the increasing popularity of ATVs for sports and recreational activities, growing farm mechanization, and rising number of off-road sports events and championships. This growth in ATV sales is expected to drive the ATV brake system market.
North America is the leading market for ATVs and accounts for over 60-62% of the total ATV brake system market globally. In 2021, the US and Canada together accounted for around 70-75% of the total ATV production in the region, indicating a high demand for ATVs in North America. The region is dominated by key players such as Polaris Industries, Textron, BRP, Hisun, Bennche, and John Deere. Utility ATVs, which are in high demand in the military and agriculture sectors, dominate the ATV market in North America.
The growing production and sales of ATVs in North America are expected to boost the ATV brake system market in the coming years.
During the forecast period, the Asia Pacific region is expected to lead the automotive brake systems market. The rise in automotive production in the region, driven by changing consumer preferences, increasing disposable income of the middle-class population, and cost advantages for local automobile OEMs, has made Asia Pacific a hub for automotive production. Major manufacturers like BMW Motors and Volkswagen AG have already established their manufacturing units in the region on a large scale. The demand for disc brakes in passenger cars and light commercial vehicles is increasing, and brake system manufacturers are expanding to cope with this demand, driving the growth of the brake system market in Asia Pacific. Companies like Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd., Akebono Brake Corporation, Mando Corporation, and Hitachi Automotive Systems Ltd. have a strong presence in the region.
China and India are the largest brake system markets in the Asia Pacific region. In these countries, the increasing vehicle production and regulatory compliance with the UN agreement on approval and recognition for motor vehicle equipment and parts (ECE-R-13) are driving the market for brake systems. Japan and South Korea already have a significant penetration of electronic braking systems, which comply with advanced braking system regulations stipulated in the US FMVSS105 and European ECE R13-H guidelines due to their local regulations. As the implementation of stringent safety standards is expected to continue, the demand for brake systems in the region is expected to grow further in the coming years.
For the purpose of this report, the global Brake System market segmented on the basis of brake type, technology, vehicle type, actuation type, application, and region:
Brake Type Outlook:
On the basis of brake type, the market is segmented into disc, drum, hydrostatic, hydraulic wet, regenerative & dynamic braking.
On the basis of technology, the market is segmented into Antilock Braking Systems (ABS), Electronic Stability Control (ESC), Traction Stability Control (TCS), Electronic Brakeforce Distribution (EBD).
Vehicle Type Outlook:
On the basis of Vehicle Type, the market is segmented into Passenger Car, Light-commercial Vehicles (LCV), Truck, Bus.
Figure 1 Brake System Market By Vehicle Type (Market Size And Forecast By Value - USD Million, 2022 & 2030)